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Thursday, January 24, 2013

शुक्रराज शास्त्री (Shukraraj Shastri)


Nepalese Martyr Shukra Raj Shastri (1894-1941) in graduation robes. , Date :1928,  Source : Nepal Bhasa Vyakarana, Author: Karrattul





Shukra Raj Shastri (born Shukra Raj Joshi) (1894-24 January 1941) was a Nepalese intellectual and fighter for democracy who became a martyr. He was one of the four martyrs of the revolution that brought down the Rana dynasty in Nepal. The other three were Dashrath Chand, Dharma Bhakta Mathema and Ganga Lal Shrestha.
Shastri was also a social reformer and author who wrote a number of books in Nepali and Nepal Bhasa.

Early life
Shastri was born in Varanasi, India. His father Madhav Raj Joshi and mother Ratna Maya Joshi were originally from Lalitpur. Madhav Raj was a leader of the Arya Samaj in Nepal, and was forced to live in exile in India for political reasons.
Shukra Raj was schooled in India, and he acquired the title Shastri after earning a Shastri degree from Dehradun. He became better known by this name than his actual surname Joshi.

Democracy fighter
Returning to Nepal, Shastri joined the democracy struggle. During a demonstration organized at Indra Chok, Kathmandu by the Citizens' Rights Committee, he spoke out strongly against the Rana regime and demanded the people's rights. For this act, he was arrested and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. On 24 January 1941, he was hanged from a tree on the side of the road at Teku, Kathmandu.

Full-length statue of Nepalese martyr Shukra Raj Shastri executed in 1941.
Location : Pulchowk, Lalitpur 

Writer
Shastri was one of the leaders of the Nepal Bhasa renaissance. He wrote a grammar of the language entitled Nepal Bhasa Vyakaran which was published from Kolkata in 1928. He was the first to produce children's literature. His other works include Nepal Bhasa Reader, Books 1 and 2 (1933) and Nepali Varnamala (1933).

ISBN: 9789994678471
Book Title: Swargako Darbar
Author: Shukraraj Shastri
Paperback Edition: 2066 [2066 BS/2nd]
It is believed that Shastri was executed for his work to develop his mother tongue Nepal Bhasa more than his involvement in politics. Shastri did not belong to any political party unlike the other three martyrs.

Legacy
Shastri and the other martyrs are honored on Martyrs Day which is observed annually on 30 January across the country. Shukra Path, a street in downtown Kathmandu, is named after him. Shastri's statues have been erected at a number of places, and the Postal Service Department has issued commemorative postage stamps depicting his image. A monument known as Shahid Gate containing the busts of the four martyrs and King Tribhuvan was built in central Kathmandu in 1961.

Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shukraraj_Shastri


शुक्रराज शास्त्री 

(जन्मनामःशुक्रराज जोशी) नेपालका शहीद तथा नेपालभाषाका प्रमुख साहित्यकार थिए। उनी आर्य समाजका एक सक्रिय सदस्य थिए। उनलाई राणाहरूले नेपाल सम्बत १०६१मा टेकुमा रुखमा झुण्ड्याएर मारेको थियो।

नेपाल भाषा, नेपाली, हिन्दी, संस्कृत र अङ्ग्रेजी भाषाका ज्ञाता स्व. शास्त्रीका ६ वटाभन्दा बढी पुस्तकहरू प्रकाशित छन्। ब्रह्मसूत्र शाङ्कर भाष्य,स्वर्गको दरबार, नेपाल भाषा व्याकरण, संस्कृत प्रदीपलगायत उनका थुप्रै पुस्तक प्रकाशित छन्।

उनलाई नेपाल भाषाको पुनर्जागरणकालका एक महान् लेखकका रूपमा लिने गरिन्छ। उनले नेपालभाषाको व्याकरण प्रथम पटक प्रकाशित गरे/गरिन्। नेपाल भाषामा वैज्ञानिक रूपले लेखिएको यो पहिलो व्याकरण थियो। यो बाहेक उनले नेपाल भाषा रिडर नामक एक रिडर पुस्तक पनि प्रकाशित गरे/गरिन्। उनका नेपाल भाषाका अन्य कार्यहरू उनको शहादत्त्वले गर्दा प्रकाशित गर्न सकिएन।

काठमाडौँ आएपछि क्रान्तिकारीहरूसँग उनको सम्पर्क भयो। वि.सं. १९९३मा 'नागरिक अधिकार समिति'मा बसी राणा शासन विरोधी अभियानमा लाग्नुभयो। शहीद शास्त्रीले भारतका महात्मा गान्धीसँग भेट गरी नेपालका बारेमा कुरा गरेका कारण काठमाडौँ फर्केपछि उनलाई राणा सरकारले नजरबन्द गर्‍यो। नजरबन्द तोडेर आफ्ना मातापिताका माहिला छोरा शुक्रराजले वि.सं. १९९५ मार्ग १३ गते काठमाडौँ इन्द्रचोकमा राणा शासकहरूको विरुद्धमा उनको सबैभन्दा पहिलो आमसभामा एकजुट हुन आह्वान गरेका थिए। त्यसपछि राजद्रोहको अभियोग लगाई उनलाई पक्राउ गरी तीनवर्षे कैद सुनाइयो। आठवटा मुद्दामा फसाई वि.सं. १९९७ साल माघ ६ गते दिउँसो १०-११ बजे सर्वस्वहरणसहित फाँसीको सजाय सुनाइयो र वि.सं. १९९७ साल माघ १० गते राती झुण्ड्याएर मारियो।

उनको जन्म नेपाल सम्बत १०१३ गुंलाथ्व गुंपुन्हि(वि.सं. १९५०)मा माधवराज जोशी र रत्नमाया जोशीका छोराको रूपमा काठमाडौँको खिउँलँ, थाय्‌मदुमा भएको थियो। नेवारको जोशी परिवारमा जन्मिएका भएर उनले पिताले जस्तै संस्कृत पढनुभएको थियो। उनका पिता आर्य समाजका नेता थिए। उनको विवाह मेनका देवी माथेमा (धर्मभक्त माथेमाको बहिनी)सँग भएको थियो। उनले पछि उच्च श्रेणीमा संस्कृत भाषामा शास्त्री उत्तीर्ण गरेकाले उनलाई 'शास्त्री' भनिएको हो। शास्त्रीले भारतको इलाहाबाद स्थित दयानन्द आर्य समाजी विद्यालयका प्रधानाध्यापक भई काम गर्नुका साथै सामाजिक सुधारका क्षेत्रमा भारतका मदनमोहन मालवीयसँग काम गर्नु भएको थियो। पञ्जाब विश्वविद्यालयबाट अङ्ग्रेजी विषयमा स्नातक गरेपछि उनी नेपालमा पस्नुभयो।

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